Battery Manufacturing

In the battery industry, EV batteries are currently in increasing demand around the world. Also, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are established, many customers face the following challenges:

  • Responding to high-quality requirements and requests for enhanced traceability
  • Enhancing competitiveness through production efficiency and cost reduction
  • Addressing Sustainable Development Goals and ESG Management
  • Technology and Knowledge exchange correspondence


Yokogawa organically integrates cutting-edge technology acquired over many years in every industry and field, as well as know-how and achievements in measurement, control and information, from the development of battery materials to the process of manufacturing.


Lithium ion Secondary Battery Manufacturing Process

Lithium-ion secondary battery is produced through the following key manufacturing process.

Yokogawa provides the equipments and solutions that support various battery manufacturing processes.





At the positive electrode, active material, conductive auxiliary agent, binder, and organic solvent are mixed to make a slurry for the positive electrode. Similarly, at the negative electrode, active material, binder, and organic solvent are mixed to make a slurry for the negative electrode.

FlowCam Flow Imaging Microscopy




Application for batteries

  • The electrode material can be easily evaluated for uniformity, shape and contamination.
  • Detect battery fluid for contamination.
  • Suitable for evaluating the quality of battery / catalyst materials.


  • Observations can be automated.
  • Take many particles at high speed (tens of thousands per minute).
  • Measure and analyse particles in real time.
  • It is a multipurpose device that combines the functions of a microscope, particle size analyzer, and flow cytometer.
  • For observation, powder samples can be dissolved in a solvent.





The particles in the liquid are automatically observed by setting the liquid sample in the device.
It is a device that extracts a particle image and analyzes the characteristics of the particle image.

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FlowCam Flow Imaging Microscopy


ROTAMASS Total Insight Coriolis mass flow meter 




Application for batteries
By controlling the mass flow during mixing and coating process, coating thickness can be accurately controlled.


  • Measures liquids and gases with high accuracy.
  • Multiple process values, such as mass flow rate, density and temperature are measured simultaneously and use to calculate other process values, such as volumetric flow rate. (Volumetric flow rate or corrected volumetric flow rate, reference density, concentration (miscible/ immiscible liquid)
  • Rotamass can measure a value from external devices and calculates the viscosity and energy of the fluid accurately.





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ROTAMASS Total Insight Coriolis Mass Flowmeter


By applying (coating) a material onto a base material, it is given the function of a positive electrode (anode), a negative electrode (cathode), and a separator that separates them, thus producing laminated electrode (laminated element) members.


Online Thickness Gauge for Battery Electrode Sheets WEBFREX3ES




Application for batteries
During the electrode coating process, WEBFREX3ES can measure coat weights which are important parameters that affect quality and yield.
It contributes to not only monitoring online quality, but also storing long-term measurement data, and improving quality and cost.


  • Achievements of film measurement for more than 50 years and battery electrode measurement for more than 10 years
  • A track record in delivering to more than half of the world's top 10 companies
  • The operation monitoring and improvement methods cultivated over many years at the manufacturing site, and the design specialized for battery electrode manufacturing backed by its know-how
  • High-speed measurement suitable for the high-speed production lines, and high-resolution measurement that enables us to measure more detailed electrode edge parts
  • Design to prevent dust contamination
  • Operation screen that supports various coating patterns such as intermittent coating and stripe coating
  • Possible to automatically save measurement data, utilize it as quality evidence, and analyze the cause when a problem occurs
  • Automatic coating control software (option) which contributes to the reduction of manpower and production loss, and improvement of production quality
  • Full support for external communication that enables centralized production management in MES and data connection with coating machines

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Online Thickness Gauge for Battery Electrode Sheets WEBFREX3ES


Both electrodes are formed by evaporating the solvent in a drying oven after the slurry is applied to the aluminium foil for the positive electrode and the copper foil for the negative electrode.


DTSX Optical fiber temperature sensor




Application for batteries
In the drying process, an optical fiber cable is used to measure the internal temperature distribution inside the furnace to understand temperature unevenness that affects the quality of the product.


  • It is now possible to provide a comprehensive view of the temperature distribution across the entire drying furnace, help determine issues in the drying process, improve productivity and quality of the drying operation.
  • Contributes to the control of the optimum temperature profile without wasting energy.
  • With an optical fiber cable, it is possible to cover multiple drying furnaces with one unit, reducing construction costs and maintenance costs compared to multi-point measurement with a point sensor.




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Distributed Temperature Sensor - Fire Detection/Fire Prevention


An electrode material is made from active material that is agitated, coated with aluminium foil, pressed into a roll, then cut according to its dimensions. The finished electrode materials are wound up or laminated with an insulation separator. Place this in the case and assemble the battery.


Sushi Sensor


Sushi Sensor 1


Application for batteries

  • Signs of abnormality in press/slit/assembly process due to uneven vibration measurements.
  • Detecting abnormal signs in advance prevents equipment failures.


  • Online equipment data collection, including data from elevated and hazardous locations, reduces inspection steps.
  • Quantify and visualize a result of inspections that depends on individual experience and intuition, and on-site experience.
  • Reduction in the unevenness of inspection quality caused by the skills and experiences of inspection staff.
  • The use of trend monitoring of equipments is effective in early detection of abnormalities and reduces the risk of overlooking them.

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Sushi Sensor






Application for batteries
It can be used for a wide range of purposes, including coating, drying, pressing, slitting, assembly and charge/discharge control, as well as process control.


  • From sequence control by rudder to event-driven control by C/C++ realized on a real time Operating system. Preparation of a controller suitable for the application and ensure high-speed and stable control.
  • Modules ranging from general-purpose DI/O and AI/O to specialty modules are available.
  • Ensure long-term supply stability as well as robustness. 


An Industrial IoT controller using a general-purpose Linux environment

Production and manufacturing equipment controlled in real time
Collecting and analyzing manufacturing site data
Seamless integration with higher-level systems



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Embedded Controllers e-RT3

Programmable Logic Controllers FA-M3


Inject and permeate the lithium-ion battery cell with the injecting rotor after weighing it.


Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopic analyzer NR800




Application for batteries
Components and low-concentration water can be measured in-line and on-line during liquid injection.


  • High stability and reliability
  • One detector covers a wide wavelength range
  • High resolution
  • Seamless integration from lab to process
  • Utilizes double beam
  • Multi-channel measurement is performed simultaneously and continuously (maximum 4 channels)

Example of using NR800

Control of trace moisture in electrolyte

Online measurements of moisture

  • Confirmation when accepting electrolyte
  • Detection of moisture content at Use point




Moisture monitoring at the point of injecting electrolyte into the battery

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Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Analyzer NR800

Charging / Discharging / Aging / Visual inspection

Charge / discharge, aging, and visual inspection are performed, and the manufacturing process is completed.




Application for batteries

  • SMARTDAC+ GM is ideal for applications requiring the meansurement of cell voltage, such as fuel cells, secondary batteries and electrolytic tanks.
  • SMARTDAC+ GM can measure and withstand a wide range of battery voltages.
  • SMARTDAC+ GM measures multi-channel synchronously and supports high common mode voltage.


  • Flexible response to changes in the number of channels
  • Easy access with a web browser
  • Open networks are supported
  • Designed for high performance and reliability
  • Environment and noise resistance

Cell voltage monitoring / measurement solution

The high withstand voltage module ensures a maximum common mode voltage of 1000 VDC.




Supports multi-point measurement of up to 420 channels with GM 1 system
10ch x 6module x 7units = 420ch


Charging / Discharging test of automotive battery

  • Contents

 Measures transient current during charging and discharging of automotive batteries.




  • Detailed data collection

 Data collection on transient current characteristics during charging and discharging within 1 ms.
 Not only collect current data, but also the internal pressure and temperature.




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Data Loggers

Information management


Collaborative Information Server (CI Server)





  • Unified management of various equipment and system information (data integration)
  • Realize data integration and centralized management of information for various facilities and systems in plants and sites
  • Support decision making
  • Linkage with various applications (application linkage)
  • By linking with information systems and data analysis applications
  • Support for improving production efficiency and quality
  • Remote operation


Data Integration

Centralized management of various equipment and system information
The integrated information server can be connected to various devices, facilities, and systems that make up the plant.
By compiling plant information as cohesive data, we can identify plant conditions.
You can control production equipment and control devices as needed.
The connection with the application is loosely coupled, and the latest technology can be supported by updating the driver.



OT and IT data integration

The integrated information server can integrate systems that were previously managed separately.
For example, integrated monitoring of OT and IT data can be realized by using Vnet/IP interface of integrated information server and interface with IIoT.


Combining vibration data with process data enables early detection of equipment failure anomalies, etc.



Remote operation

The integrated information server provides various people such as field operators, equipment maintenance staff, quality control staff, and staff in the corporate department with the data they need, thereby improving the efficiency and productivity of the entire plant. Support smooth collaboration with experts and decision makers who are not on-site to ensure efficient operations and management.




Application linkage

As the importance of DX increases, new digital technologies such as AI and digital twins are being created one after another.
By linking the integrated information server with the latest external technologies, applications, information systems, etc., we support productivity improvement and quality improvement.


  • Predict process behavior using digital twins
  • Improve productivity by linking with quality improvement software
  • Failure prediction of facilities and equipment using AI and machine learning
  • Coordination of management goals (KPIs) across organizations
  • Coordination with web applications and geographic information systems


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Collaborative Information Server (CI Server)

Quality improvement


Digital Plant Operation Intelligence (DPI)





[Quality complaints/yield deterioration due to environmental changes] (Before introducing DPI)
Until now, on-site quality has been covered by on-site capabilities such as knowledge and experience.
However, the balance of manufacturing (raw materials, equipment, and people) has already collapsed due to changes
 in the environment surrounding the manufacturing site.
We are reaching the limits of our response to quality complaints and yield deterioration.


[Unraveling the “now” of manufacturing and quantifying the situation] (After introducing DPI)
Raw materials, equipment, and people cannot be changed easily.
We will deal with the process, that is, the method of operation.
Unravel the “now” of manufacturing (4M) and quantify the situation.
Based on that information, we create new quality control points and countermeasure flows, add to existing quality control points.
We realize a manufacturing that is strong and adaptable to changes in the environment.


What is DPI?

  • The key to solutions that realize manufacturing that is resistant to changes in 4Ms
  • Much of the challenge comes from 4Ms variations
  • Raw materials, equipment and people cannot be changed easily. Allow 4Ms variations and handle in the method.
  • Visualization of 4Ms status + visualization of knowledge ⇒ online
  • In addition to conventional automatic control, realize operation with Manufacturing Perspective


System Features



Our approach to address 4M quality issues



  • “Material”, “Machine”, and “huMan” factors are difficult to change.
  • “Method” is more flexible

    Accept the variations of 4Ms and adjust methods to stabilize product quality.



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Digital Plant Operation Intelligence(DPI)

Operation improvement


Procedural Automation (Exapilot)





  • Experts’ operation know-how can be easily systemized
  • Plant start-up, shutdown, product changeover, etc., are mainly manual operation areas where the operation qualities vary depending on the operator’s skill. Exapilot is an operation automation package that can easily systematize the experienced operators’ work procedures. We can improve your operating efficiency and reduce operating costs by standardizing your operating procedures at a high level.
  • Realize operating procedures by simply combining icons (construction window)
  • Operating procedures can be constructed by simply arranging icons according to the know-how. Complex procedures can be constructed easily by hierarchization(bullet missing)
  • Prevention of mistakes (operating window)
  • Possible to operate with checking since a message is displayed on the screen for each event execution
  • DCS operation monitoring automation
  • Operations, such as valve opening setting, ramping, level monitoring, and pump start/stop can be automated with operational know-how.




What is Exapilot?

  • It is a package that improves the operating stability, safety, and efficiency by supporting work that requires human experience and knowledge, such as manual operation and hand work.
  • You can easily develop an operation support system by using flowcharts.
  • We embody the customer’s operating know-how and provide an environment that can be improved while inheriting that valuable assets.
  • Standardize manual work on site.


Recommended for the following tasks:

  • Create a digital operating procedures
  • Instruct field operation using guidance
  • Visualize expert operator know-how
  • Use flow charts and write while speaking


On-site Work Support (using a tablet PC) 

  • Guiding your work procedures with guidance display
  • Clarification of your work by using supporting data display
  • Automatic recording of the implementation time and the person in charge information, etc.



Start-up and shutdown the mixing equipment

  • Reduce start-up/shutdown time, work mistakes, and the rate of personalization

Brand and recipe management

  • Efficient operations, reduction in the workers’ load and errors in work

Digitization of daily reports (reduction of handwriting)

  • The efficiency of daily reports creation work and analysis


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Procedural Automation (Exapilot)


Application Note

Temperature Monitoring Solution for 
Quick Detection of Fires in Fume Ducts


Smart Monitoring of Manufacturing Process Shelves and Storage Shelves (In-vehicle Lithium-ion Battery Applications)


Prevention of Fires in Exhaust Air Ducts in Battery Assembly Process (In-vehicle Lithium-ion Battery Applications)


With industrial and economic development comes increasingly large and advanced power plants and factories. Nevertheless, we find many cases where the original cables, cable tunnels, and other components of the power infrastructure have languished under continuous operation.


Monitoring of Separator/Electrode Drying Furnace Temperature Distribution (In-vehicle Lithium-ion Battery Applications)


Monitoring of Soundness of Power Supply Bus Bar (In-vehicle Lithium-ion Battery Applications)


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